10055: Who are Ahl al-Bayt (the members of the Prophet’s family)?


who are Ahl al bayt? Hadith ethakalayn stated that fatima, Ali,Hassan &Hussein are ahl bayt arrasoul()?

 Praise be to Allaah. 

There are several views among the scholars (may Allaah have mercy on them) concerning the definition of Ahl al-Bayt. Some said that the members of the Prophet’s family are his wives, his children, Banu Haashim, Banu ‘Abd al-Muttalib and their freed slaves. Some said that his wives were not part of the Ahl al-Bayt. Some said that the Ahl al-Bayt are Quraysh; some said that the family of Muhammad are the pious among his ummah; and some said that they are all of the ummah of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).

  With regard to the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), the most correct view is that they are included among the members of the family of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), because Allaah says, after commanding the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) to observe hijaab (interpretation of the meaning):

  “Allaah wishes only to remove Ar-Rijs (evil deeds and sins) from you, O members of the family (of the Prophet), and to purify you with a thorough purification”

[al-Ahzaab 33:33]

  And the angels said to Saarah the wife of Ibraaheem (peace be upon him) (interpretation of the meaning):

  “The Mercy of Allaah and His Blessings be on you, O the family [of Ibraaheem (Abraham)]”

[Hood 11:73]

  And because Allaah excluded the wife of Loot from the family of Loot (peace be upon him) with regard to survival, when He said (interpretation of the meaning):

  “(All) except the family of Loot. Them all we are surely, going to save (from destruction). Except his wife…”

[al-Hijr  15:59-60]

  This indicates that the wife is part of the family.

  With regard to the family of al-Muttalib, it was stated in a report from Imaam  Ahmad that they are among them [among the Ahl al-Bayt]. This is also the view of Imaam al-Shaafa'i. Imaam Abu Haneefah and Imaam Maalik were of the view that the family of Muttalib are not included in the family of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him); there is also a report to this effect from Ahmad. The correct view is that Banu ‘Abd al-Muttalib are among the Ahl al-Bayt. The evidence for that is the report narrated from Jubayr ibn Mut’im (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: “ ‘Uthmaan ibn ‘Affaan and I went to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said: ‘O Messenger of Allaah, you have given to Banu’l-Muttalib and not to us, but we and they are the same in status with regard to you.’ The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘Banu’l-Muttalib and Banu Haashim are the same thing.’” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, no. 2907; al-Nasaa’i, 4067; and others).

  Included among the Ahl al-Bayt are Banu Haashim ibn ‘Abd Manaaf, who are the family of ‘Ali, the family of ‘Abbaas, the family of Ja’far, the family of ‘Aqeel and the family of al-Haarith ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib. This was stated in the report narrated by Imaam Ahmad from Zayd ibn Arqam (may Allaah be pleased with him), in which he said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) stood up and addressed us one day at a well called Khum, between Makkah and Madeenah. He praised Allaah and exhorted and reminded us. Then he said: ‘O people, I am a human being; soon the messenger of my Lord [i.e., the Angel of death] will come to me and I will answer his call. I am leaving among you two important things: the first of which is the Book of Allaah, in which there is guidance and light, so adhere to it and follow it’ – and he urged us to adhere to the Book of Allaah, then he said: ‘And the people of my household (ahl bayti). I remind you of Allaah with regard to the people of my household, I remind you of Allaah with regard to the people of my household, I remind you of Allaah with regard to the people of my household.’” Husayn said to him [Zayd], “Who are the people of his household, O Zayd? Are not his wives among the people of his household?” Zayd said: “His wives are among the people of his household, but the people of his household are those who are forbidden to receive sadaqah (charity) after his death.” He (Husayn) said: “Who are they?” He said: “They are the family of ‘Ali, the family of ‘Aqeel, the family of Ja’far and the family of ‘Abbaas.” Husayn said: “Are all of these forbidden to receive sadaqah?” Zayd said, “Yes.”

(Narrated by Ahmad, no. 18464)

  With regard to the freed slaves, it was narrated that Mihraan the freed slave of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said; “We are the family of Muhammad: the sadaqah is not permissible for us, and the freed slave of a people is one of them.” (Narrated by Ahmad, no. 15152).

  So the family of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) are: his wives, his children, and Banu Haashim, Banu ‘Abd al-Muttalib and their freed slaves. And Allaah knows best.

Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid
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