My father took a second wife and it is known that she has become a mahram for me, but my question is: Has her mother also become a mahram for me?.
The mahrams through marriage fall into four categories:
1. The ascendants of the husband [his father and grandfathers] become mahrams to the wife.
2. The descendents of the husband [his sons and grandsons] become mahrams to the wife.
3. The ascendants of the wife [her mother and grandmothers] become mahrams to the husband.
These three categories become mahrams as soon as the marriage contract is done.
4. The descendants of the wife [her daughters and granddaughters] become mahrams to the husband. In this case there must be consummation. Once consummation takes place, then her daughters from a previous or subsequent husband become mahrams to him forever.
End quote from al-Sharh al-Mumti’ (12/128).
Thus it is clear that the mother of the father’s wife does not become a mahram for his sons.
It is permissible for a man to marry a woman, and for his son to marry her mother, or her daughter, because that is included in the words of Allaah, after mentioning the women who are mahrams (interpretation of the meaning):
“All others are lawful”
And Allaah knows best.