Is there any saheeh report in the Sunnah that speaks of reciting a particular soorah of the Qur’aan before travelling?
The text of the hadeeth referred to in the question is as follows:
It was narrated that Jubayr ibn Mut‘im said: The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said to me: “O Jubayr, when you set out on a journey, would you like to be the best of your companions in appearance and quantity of provisions?” I said: Yes, may my father and mother be sacrificed for you. He said: “Recite these five soorahs: ‘Qul ya ayyuhal kaafiroon’ [al-Kaafiroon 109], ‘Idha ja’a nasr Allahi wal fath’ [al-Nasr 110], Qul Huwa Allahu ahad [al-Ikhlaas 112], Qul a‘oodhi bi rabbi’l-falaq [al-Falaq 113] and Qul a‘oodhu bi raabi’n-naas [an-Naas 114]. Start your recitation by saying Bismillah ir-Rahmaan ir-Raheem and end your recitation by saying Bismillah ir-Rahmaan ir-Raheem.” Jubayr said: I was rich and had a great deal of wealth, and I used to set out with whomever Allah willed I should set out with on a journey, and I would be the worst of them in appearance and the least in terms of provisions. From the time the Messenger of Allah (blessing and peace of Allah be upon him) taught me it, I have never stopped reciting them, and I am one of the best of them in appearance and have the most provisions, until I come back from my journey.
This was narrated by Abu Ya‘la in his Musnad, 13/339, hadeeth no 7419.
This is a da‘eef (weak) hadeeth; its isnaad includes unknown narrators.
Al-Haythami said concerning it in Majma‘ az-Zawaa’id (10/134): (Its isnaad) includes people who I do not know.
Shaykh al-Albaani said concerning it in as-Silsilah ad-Da‘eefah (6963): (it is) munkar.
Based on that, it is not valid to quote this hadeeth as evidence to suggest that it is mustahabb to recite any soorahs of the Qur’aan before travelling. By the same token, it is not valid to quote it as evidence for saying the basmalah at the beginning of each soorah.
See also the answer to question no. 149125
And Allah knows best.