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The first mosque built by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)

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What is the area of the first mosque that was built by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)? Was there a mihraab in it? Please quote evidence.

Praise be to Allaah.

Firstly: 

The first mosque that was built by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was the mosque of Quba’ in Madeenah al-Munawwarah. 

Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Zaad al-Ma’aad (3/58), when describing the arrival of the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in Madeenah:  

The Muslims said takbeer, rejoicing at his arrival, and they went out to meet him… He continued until he stopped in Quba’, among Banu ‘Amr ibn ‘Awf, and he stayed among them for fourteen days, and founded the mosque of Quba’, which is the first mosque to be established after the beginning of his Prophethood. End quote. 

The great scholar Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shanqeeti (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: 

With regard to the order of building, al-Masjid al-Haraam was the first mosque to be built for mankind. The mosque of Quba’ was the first mosque built by the Muslims. Al-Masjid al-Haraam was built by Ibraaheem and the mosque of Quba’ was built by the Seal of the Messengers. The site of al-Masjid al-Haraam was chosen by Allaah and something similar may be said about the site of the mosque of Quba’. End quote. 

Adwa’ al-Bayaan (8/326). 

We do not know anything about its area when it was built. It is located south of Madeenah, but its structure is recent and there is no trace of the first structure. 

The Muslims paid attention to the mosque of Quba’ throughout the ages. It was renovated by ‘Uthmaan ibn ‘Affaan (may Allaah be pleased with him), then by ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Azeez. Other caliphs also expanded and renovated it, until the final expansion in 1406 AH. 

The size of the prayer hall alone is now 5035 square meters, and the area occupied by the mosque with all its facilities is 13,500 square meters. 

Secondly: 

There are ahaadeeth from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) which speak of the virtue of praying in the mosque of Quba’: 

Al-Bukhaari (1193) and Muslim (1399) narrated that Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to go to the mosque of Quba’ every Saturday, walking or riding. 

According to a report narrated by Muslim: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to go to the mosque of Quba’ walking or riding, and he would pray two rak’ahs there. 

Al-Tirmidhi (324) narrated from Usayd ibn Zuhayr al-Ansaari, who was one of the companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Prayer in the mosque of Quba’ is like ‘Umrah.” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi

Al-Nasaa’i (699) narrated that Sahl ibn Hunayf said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever goes out to this mosque, the mosque of Quba’, and prays therein, will have (a reward) like that of ‘umrah.” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Nasaa’i. 

Thirdly: 

As for the mihraab, there was no mihraab in it when it was first built. The scholars stated that the building of mihraabs in mosques began in the second century AH. 

For information on the rulings on these mihraabs, see the answer to question no. 68827

And Allaah knows best.

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