Praise be to Allaah.
A hadeeth concerning this
was narrated from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon
him) but it is da’eef (weak).
In al-Jaami’ al-Sagheer,
al-Suyooti attributed it to Ibn Shaheen in his Targheeb: It was
narrated from al-Diya’ from Jareer ibn ‘Abd-Allaah (may Allaah be pleased
with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)
said: “The month of Ramadaan is suspended between heaven and earth and is
not taken up to Allaah except by zakaat al-fitr.”
It was classed as da’eef by
al-Suyooti. Al-Mannaawi explained the reason for that in Fayd al-Qadeer,
where he said: It was narrated by Ibn al-Jawzi in al-Waahiyaat and he
said: it is not saheeh; its isnaad includes Muhammad ibn ‘Ubayd al-Basri who
is majhool (unknown).
It was also classed as
da’eef by al-Albaani in Silsilat al-Ahaadeeth al-Da’eefah (43). He
said: Even if the hadeeth were saheeh, the apparent meaning is that
acceptance of the Ramadaan fast is dependent upon payment of sadaqat
al-fitr, and if a person does not pay it, his fast will not be accepted, but
I do not know of any scholar who says that … and the hadeeth is not saheeh.
As the hadeeth is not
saheeh, no one can say that the fast of Ramadaan is only accepted with
zakaat al-fitr, because no one can know that except the Prophet (peace
and blessings of Allaah be upon him).
It is proven in Sunan
Abi Dawood that Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The
Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)
enjoined zakaat al-fitr as a purification for the fasting person from idle
speech and obscene talk, and to feed the poor.” Classed as hasan by
al-Albaani in Saheeh Sunan Abi Dawood.
This hadeeth explains the
wisdom behind zakaat al-fitr, which is to make up for any shortfall that
occurred during fasting. It does not say that fasting will not be accepted
without zakaat al-fitr.
And Allaah knows best.