Praise be to Allah.
Your question may be answered by the following points:
There is no doubt that the Prophet of Allaah Ibraaheem (Abraham) was a pure monotheist, and he was not among the polytheists and disbelievers. Although the Jews are among the offspring of Ibraaheem (peace be upon him), they went against his way by associating partners in worship with Allaah and claiming that Uzayr (Ezra) was a son of God. They said that God is miserly and that His hand is tied up, and they said, He is poor and we are rich. They also said that when God created the heavens and the earth in six days, He got tired, so He rested on the Sabbath day exalted be Allaah far above all that they say about Him. They also likened the attributes of God to human attributes (anthropomorphism) and killed the Prophets, etc., etc.
Once this distinction and contrast is made clear, there can be no brotherhood between a monotheistic believer and a polytheistic disbeliever, as Allaah says in the Quraan (interpretation of the meaning): Indeed there has been an excellent example for you in Ibraaheem and those with him, when they said to their people, Verily, we are free from you and whatever you worship besides Allaah. We have rejected you, and there has started between us and you, hostility and hatred forever, - until you believe in Allaah Alone, except the saying of Ibraaheem to his father: Verily, I will ask for forgiveness (from Allaah) for you, but I have no power to do anything for you before Allaah. Our Lord! In You (Alone) we put our trust, and to You (Alone) we turn in repentance, and to You (Alone) is (our) final Return, - Certainly, there has been in them an excellent example for you to follow, - for those who look forward to (the Meeting with) Allaah (for the reward from Him) and the Last Day. And whosoever turn away, then verily, Allaah is Rich (Free of all wants), Worthy of all Praise. [al-Mumtahinah 60:4,6]
Once this separation and enmity is clear, it is unavoidable that there will be hostility and disavowal and the resulting struggle against the enemies of Allaah. So long as the laws and wisdom of Allaah dictate that there should the distinction between believers and disbelievers, there has to be this clearly-stated enmity. There can be no change to the laws of Allaah.
There cannot be harmony between Jews who are usurpers and aggressors, who have oppressed and persecuted others, and who are known for their treachery and corruption throughout the world, historically and in the present age and the purely monotheistic Muslim owners of the land, whose menfolk the Jews have killed, and imprisoned their sons, and destroyed their homes, and taken possession of their lands by force, and prevented them from earning a proper living, and carried out chemical and radiational experiments on their prisoners, and taken organs from them for transplant into Jewish patients and all other kinds of persecutions and atrocities.
In addition to this, the Jews are people of treachery and betrayal; it is not possible to trust them at all. Their current conduct bears this out: is there any treaty or agreement signed by them that they have actually fulfilled? This is no big surprise for the Muslims, who know what Allaah has said in His Book about the Jews (interpretation of the meaning): Is it not (the case) that every time they make a covenant, some party among them throws it aside? Nay! The truth is most of them believe not. [al-Baqarah 2:100].
Moreover, if the Muslims agreed to live in peace with the Jews, who would be in charge? One of the basic principles of Islam is that Islam should prevail, not be prevailed over. One of the conditions for People of the Book (Jews and Christians) living with Muslims in a Muslim country is that they should live under certain conditions (shuroot ahl al-dhimmah) in return for the security and protection afforded them by the Muslims. One of the most important of these conditions is that they should not openly display their shirk and kufr (polytheistic disbelief) in the Muslim lands, whether by word or deed.
As the Muslims and Jews are enemies residing in opposing religious and doctrinal camps, it is not possible for them to be brought together unless one is made to submit to the other by force. Indeed, the Jews now are not allowing the Muslims to remain in their homes, even if there was no provocative action on the part of the Muslims; they are seizing the Muslims property by force, building their settlements on the Muslims lands and expelling the Muslims by any means. They have expelled millions to the neighbouring countries, which have accommodated them in the so-called Palestinian refugee camps.
Finally, although the Muslims nowadays are in a position of weakness and humiliation because they have turned away from their religion and are unable to fight the Jews, take back their stolen lands and impose the rule of Islamic shareeah in Palestine, this does not mean that this will always be the case until the end of the world. Things have to change, and one of the indications of this is the hadeeth of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), who informed us of some things that are to happen in the future. He was supported by Revelation from his Lord; he did not speak of his own whims and desires, but of that which was revealed to him. He said:
You will fight the Jews and will prevail over them, so that a rock will say, O Muslim! There is Jew behind me, kill him!
(Reported by Muslim, 2921; al-Bukhaari, 2926).
According to a report narrated by Muslim from Abu Hurayrah, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: The Hour [the Day of Judgement] will not begin until the Muslims fight the Jews and kill them. A Jew will hide behind a rock or a tree, and the rock or tree will say, O Muslim, O slave of Allaah! There is a Jew behind me, come and kill him! except for the gharqad (box thorn), for it is one of the trees of the Jews.
(Reported by Muslim, 2922).
We would like to express our appreciation for your question, your desire to find out the truth, and the polite and eloquent manner in which your inquiry was phrased. We invite you to believe in Allaah as your Lord, in Islam as your religion, and in Muhammad as your Prophet, for this by Allaah will save you and benefit you and protect you in this world, in the grave after death, and in the Hereafter on the Day of Reckoning. May Allaah help us and you to do all that is good.