Al-Raqeeb is one of the beautiful names of Allaah.
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Surely, Allaah is Ever an All‑Watcher [Raqeeb] over you”
“And Allaah is Ever a Watcher [Raqeeb] over all things”
and Allaah tells us that His Prophet ‘Eesa (peace be upon him) said (interpretation of the meaning):
“but when You took me up, You were the Watcher over them; and You are a Witness to all things”
The meaning of the word al-Raqeeb is the Watcher, the One who sees the actions of His slaves, from Whom nothing is hidden. Also included in the meaning of the name al-Raqeeb is the Controller Who runs the affairs of creation in the best possible manner.
Al-Khaazin said in Lubaab al-Ta’weel (1/473) concerning the meaning of the verse “Surely, Allaah is Ever an All‑Watcher [Raqeeb] over you”[al-Nisa’ 4:1]:
The name al-Raqeeb, when referring to Allaah, means: He is the one Who is not inattentive to that which He has created in such a way that would lead to it becoming imperfect and faulty. And it was said that He is al-Haafiz from whom nothing is hidden with regard to His creation. And he explained the verse “Surely, Allaah is Ever an All‑Watcher [Raqeeb] over you”[al-Nisa’ 4:1] as meaning that He knows that which is secret and yet more hidden. As that is the case, He is deserving of being feared and obeyed. End quote.
Al-Aloosi said in Rooh al-Ma’aani (4/209):
He looks at your hearts and sees what is in them. End quote.
It says in al-Tahreer wa’l-Tanweer (13/150), commenting on the verse in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “Is then He (Allaah) Who takes charge (guards, maintains, provides) of every person and knows all that he has earned (like any other deities who know nothing)?” [al-Ra’d 13:33]:
The one who takes charge of a thing is al-Raqeeb, which includes protecting, preserving and maintaining. End quote.
It says in Lisaan al-‘Arab (1/424) under the heading raqiba:
One of the names of Allaah, may He be exalted, is al-Raqeeb, which means the One Who watches over all things, from whom nothing is hidden. End quote.
Ibn Jareer said concerning the verse “And Allaah is Ever a Watcher [Raqeeb] over all things”[al-Ahzaab 33:52]:
Allaah is the One Who watches over all things, meaning that which He has permitted to you and has forbidden to you and all other things; none of that is hidden from Him and He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving all of that. End quote.
Tafseer al-Tabari (20/304).
i.e., He is watching over all things, He knows how they will end and He is controlling them in the most perfect, best and wisest of ways. End quote.
Tafseer al-Sa’di (p. 670).
With regard to your name Rakib (Raqeeb), the meaning is not much different from the meaning mentioned above, except that it is in the sense that is befitting to a human being.
So what it means is the one who watches over or supervises things. That includes raqeeb al-jaysh (sergeant) who guards and protects, and raqeeb al-qawm who guards the people.
See: Lisaan al-‘Arab (1/424); al-Sihaah (1/264); Maqaayees al-Lughah (2/353); al-Qamoos al-Muheet (116); Taaj al-‘Aroos (533); al-Mukhassas (3/155), under the heading raqiba.
If a person understands the good meaning of his name, then he should strive to acquire characteristics indicated by this meaning. Usually every person has a share of his name. See the words of Ibn al-Qayyim concerning that in the answer to question number 14622.
And Allaah knows best.