Praise be to Allah.
(1, 2, 4) Fiddling medical bills, leave and timings.
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Verily, Allaah commands that you should render back the trusts to those, to whom they are due; and that when you judge between men, you judge with justice. Verily, how excellent is the teaching which He (Allaah) gives you! Truly, Allaah is Ever All-Hearer, All-Seer” [al-Nisaa’ 4:58]
“O you who believe! Betray not Allaah and His Messenger, nor betray knowingly your Amaanaat (things entrusted to you, and all the duties which Allaah has ordained for you)” [al-Anfaal 8:27]
In these aayaat there is the command to fulfil all kinds of trusts which people may be given. Fulfilling trusts and carrying them out properly is one of the greatest signs of faith.
It was reported in al-Saheehayn from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The signs of the munaafiq (hypocrite) are three: when he speaks, he lies; when he makes a promise, he breaks it; and when he is entrusted with something he betrays that trust.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, no. 32; Muslim, no. 89). According to a report narrated by Muslim (no. 90), “Even if he fasts and prays and claims that he is a Muslim.”
This indicates that betrayal is a characteristic of the hypocrites. In al-Musnad it was narrated from Anas that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There is no eemaan (faith) for the one who cannot be trusted and there is no religion for the one who does not keep his promise.” (Musnad al-Imaam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, no. 11935).
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to pray: “Allaahumma inni a’oodhu bika min al-joo’i fa innahu bi’s al-dajee’, wa a’oodhi bika min al-khiyaanah fa innahaa bi’sat il-bitaanah (O Allaah, I seek refuge with You from hunger, for it is the worst of bedfellows, and I seek refuge with You from betrayal, for it is the worst of companions).”
(Narrated by al-Nasaa’i, no. 5373; Abu Dawood, no. 1323; Ibn Maajah, 3345. Al-Albaani said, it is hasan saheeh. Saheeh Sunan al-Nasaa’i, 3/1112).
Maymoon ibn Mihraan said: “Three things are to be fulfilled for the righteous and impious alike: trust, promises and the upholding of family ties.”
Hence it is obligatory for an employee to remember that his Lord is always watching and to fulfil the trust of his work honestly, sincerely and carefully, so that his conscience will be clear, his earnings will be good (halaal) and his Lord will be pleased with him.
What you have mentioned about fiddling (with medical expenses, etc.) is a form of cheating, deception and betrayal which is not appropriate. “A believer may have any (bad) qualities apart from treachery and lying.” (Narrated by Imaam Ahmad, no. 21149, from the marfoo’ hadeeth of Abu Umaamah may Allaah be pleased with him).
So it is not permissible for you to manipulate the timings of your attendance at work, or to take sick leave when you are not sick, or to ask for things to which you are not entitled by giving false proof. All of that is haraam according to Islam, and is acting like the hypocrites. The fact that your boss or superior takes the matter lightly is not an acceptable excuse for doing something haraam. And Allaah knows best.
(3) With regard to neckties, please see Question # 1399
(4) With regard to praying wearing trousers or pants. If they are concealing and loose, not tight, then it is OK to pray in them. It is better to wear a shirt over them which covers the area from the navel to the knee and comes down to mid-calf or to the ankles, because that is more concealing.
(5)With regard to the beard, it is obligatory to leave it alone and let it grow, in obedience to the command of the Messenger of Allaah, and ignore what they say. Whoever gives up something for the sake of Allaah, Allaah will compensate him with something better than it. And Allaah knows best.