A poor person supports his family, consisting of his mother, father and children. Eid al-Fitr is coming and he only has a saa’ of food. Who should pay it on his behalf?.
If the situation of this poor person is as described in the question, then he should pay the saa’ of food on behalf of himself, if it is surplus to his needs and the needs of those whom he is supporting on the day and night of Eid, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Start with yourself and then with your dependents.”
Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 2/117, 6/190; Muslim, 2/717, 718, 721, no. 1034, 1036, 1042.
With regard to his dependents, if they do not have anything to give in zakaah on behalf of themselves, then they are not obliged to pay it, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Allaah burdens not a person beyond his scope”
And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There is no sadaqah except for one who has the means.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 2/117, 6/190; Muslim, 2/717, no. 1034. And he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “If I command you to do a thing, then do as much of it as you can.”
And Allaah is the Source of strength. May Allaah send blessings and peace upon our Prophet Muhammad and his family and companions.