Praise be to Allah.
Praise be to Allaah.
Before answering this question, it will be useful to shed more light on the
issue of adoption and giving a child a name or lineage that is not really his.
In Islam, adoption (i.e., giving your name to a child who is not yours) is
haraam, and is considered to be a major sin because of the wrongdoing
and corruption that result from it. Allaah says (interpretation of the
meaning): "Call them (adopted sons) by (the names of) their fathers, that
is more just with Allaah" [al-Ahzaab 33:5].
The Messenger of Allaah
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon
him) said: "Whoever claims knowingly to belong to someone other than his
father will be denied Paradise." (Reported by al-Bukhaari and Muslim, Fath, no.
3982). He also said: "Whoever claims to belong to someone other than his
father, will be cursed by Allaah, the angels and all the people, and Allaah
will not accept any deeds or excuses from him on the Day of
Resurrection." (Reported by Muslim, may Allaah have mercy on him, in his Saheeh, no.
In his commentary on this hadeeth, al-Nawawi said: "This is clearly stating
the emphatic prohibition of claiming to belong to anyone other than one's
real father because this involves ingratitude and a denial of the rights of
inheritance, as well as cutting family ties and undutifulness to parents."
(al-Nawawi's statement ends). It also involves not carrying out the rules of
inheritance, and ignoring the prohibited degrees of marriage to women [i.e. a
man may unknowingly marry someone he is not permitted to, such as a sister, when true
origins are concealed by not calling a child after his real father - translator's note], etc.
If a man wants to sponsor an orphan, the child must still be named after his
father, if his name is known; it is not permissible to attribute this child to
himself by giving him his name. If the child's real origins are not known,
then he should be given an appropriate name by which he may be known to
others, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): "Call them (adopted
sons) by (the names of) their fathers, that is more just with Allaah. But if
you know not their father's (names, call them) your brothers in faith "
In answer to your question, which has to do with a girl - for example -
addressing the one who is sponsoring her and bringing her up as "Father"
or "Daddy," Shaykh 'Abd al-'Azeez ibn Baaz has issued a fatwa (ruling)
stating that this is allowed, because he is acting in the position of a father to
her, and we should not be so strict in this matter.
Note: If a man is sponsoring a very young girl (less than two years old) he
should try to establish the relationship of mahram by letting her breastfeed
from his wife, mother or sister, so that she will become his mahram,
otherwise he has to make sure that she does not uncover (take off her
hijaab) in front of him when she grows up. The exception to this is a
step-daughter (his wife's daughter from a previous marriage); she does not
have to wear hijaab in front of her mother's husband even if no relationship
is established through breastfeeding (al-radaa').