Saturday 14 Muḥarram 1446 - 20 July 2024
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Is Missing Jumu`ah because of Snow Permissible?

Question

Did the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) ever miss the Jumu`ah prayer because of bad weather? The weather is about 20 cm of snow.

Summary of answer

It is permissible to miss Jumu`ah and prayers in congregation in the event of heavy rain, cold wind or snow which is bothersome to people and makes it difficult for them to go to Jumu`ah.

Answer

Praise be to Allah.

There is no report in the Sunnah that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) did not pray Jumu`ah because of rain or snow ; rather he did not pray it when travelling .

It is permissible to not pray Jumu`ah and prayers in congregation in the event of heavy rain, cold wind or snow which is bothersome to people and makes it difficult for them to go to Jumu`ah , because of the report narrated by Al-Bukhari (901) and Muslim, according to which Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said to his Mu’adhdhin on a rainy day: When you say Ashhadu anna Muhammadan Rasul-Allah, do not say, Hayya ‘ala as-salah (come to prayer); rather say, Sallu fi buyutikum (pray in your houses). It was as if the people found that objectionable. He said: One who is better than me did that. Jumu`ah is obligatory , but I did not want to force you to walk in the mud and on slippery ground. 

[An-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him)] said: “This Hadith indicates that Jumu`ah may be waived because of rain and the like. This is our view and the view of others. Something different was narrated from Malik (may Allah have mercy on him). And Allaah knows best which is correct.”

The Hanbalis regarded snow as one of the reasons that make it permissible not to go to Jumu`ah or prayers in congregation.  

It says in Kashshaf Al-Qina` (1/495): 

“Attendance at Jumu`ah or prayers in congregation may be waived in the event of rain, mud, snow, ice or a cold wind on a dark night, because of the words of Ibn `Umar: The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) would ask his caller to call out on a cold or rainy night when travelling: Pray where you are. (Narrated by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

It was also narrated from Ibn Majah with an authentic Isnad (chain of narration), but he did not say “when travelling.” In Al-Bukhari and Muslim, it was narrated from Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) that he said to his Mu’adhdhin on a rainy day -- Muslim added that it was a Friday -- … and he narrated the Hadith quoted above. And the same applies to snow, ice and cold. 

This confirms that cold wind on a dark night is an excuse, because it is likely that it will rain.” End quote. 

It is well known that many people are not bothered by snow and it does not prevent them from going to work and meeting other needs. For these people, snow is no excuse for them not to attend Jumu`ah. But if it bothers them and makes it very hard for them to get to the mosque, then it is an excuse. 

And Allah knows best.

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Source: Islam Q&A