Praise be to Allah.
How to perform hajj
There follows a summary of what the pilgrim should do according to the sahih Sunnah:
- The pilgrim should enter ihram on the eighth day of Dhul-Hijjah from Makkah or its environs within the sanctuary. When entering ihram for Hajj he should do what he did when entering ihram for `Umrah: ghusl (full ablution), putting on perfume and praying. He should form the intention of entering ihram for Hajj and recite the Talbiyah . The Talbiyah for Hajj is the same as the Talbiyah for `Umrah, except that one should say here “Labbayka hajjan (Here I am for Hajj)” instead of “Labbayka ‘umratan (Here I am for `Umrah).” If he fears that some obstacle may prevent him from completing Hajj, he should stipulate a condition and say: “If something prevents me (from completing Hajj) I will exit ihram at the point where I am prevented (from continuing).” If he is not afraid of any obstacle then he does not need to stipulate any condition.
- Then he should go to Mina and stay there overnight, and offer five prayers there: Zuhr, ‘Asr, Maghrib, ‘Isha and Fajr.
- When the sun rises on the ninth day he should proceed to `Arafah and pray Zuhr and `Asr together there, shortened, at the time of Zuhr. Then he should strive in du’a, dhikr and prayers for forgiveness until the sun sets.
- When the sun sets, he should proceed to Muzdalifah and pray Maghrib and ‘Isha there when he arrives. Then he should stay there overnight until he prays Fajr, and remember Him and call upon Him until just before sunrise.
- Then he should move on to Mina to stone Jamrat al-‘Aqabah which is the last pillar that is closest to Makkah, throwing seven pebbles one after another, each one approximately the size of a date stone, saying takbir (“Allahu akbar”) with each throw.
- Then he should slaughter the hadiy (sacrificial animal), namely a sheep or one-seventh of a camel or one-seventh of a cow.
- Then he should shave his head if he is male; women should cut their hair but not shave it, taking off the length of a fingertip from all parts of their hair.
- Then he should go to Makkah and perform the tawaf of Hajj .
- Then he should go back to Mina and stay there for those nights, namely the nights of the eleventh and twelfth of Dhu’l-Hijjah, and stone the three Jamarat (stone pillars) after the sun has passed its zenith, throwing seven pebbles, one after another, at each, starting with the smallest pillar – which is the one that is furthest away from Makkah, then the middle pillar. He should recite du’a after both, then he should stone Jamrat al-‘Aqabah, after which there is no du’a.
- When he has finished stoning the pillars on the twelfth of Dhu’l-Hijjah, if he wishes he may hasten and leave Mina, and if he wishes he may delay (his departure) and stay there on the night of the thirteenth and stone the three Jamarat after the sun passes its zenith. It is better to delay and stay longer, but it is not obligatory unless the sun sets on the twelfth and one is still in Mina, in which case it becomes obligatory to stay until one stones the three jamarat after the sun passes its zenith. But if the sun sets on the twelfth day and a person is still in Mina but not by choice, such as if he had packed his bags and got into the bus or truck, but was delayed because of overcrowding and traffic jams, then he does not have to stay, because his staying until after sunset was involuntary.
- Once those days are over and the pilgrim wants to leave, he must not leave until he has performed the farewell tawaf, going around the Ka`bah seven times. Women who are menstruating or bleeding following childbirth do not have to do this farewell tawaf.
- If the pilgrim is performing a voluntary Hajj on behalf of another person, whether a relative or otherwise, then he has to have done Hajj for himself before that. There is no difference in the way he performs Hajj apart from the intention, i.e., he should form the intention of performing this Hajj on behalf of that person, mentioning him by name in the Talbiyah and saying, “Labbayk ‘an [fulan] (Here I am on behalf of [So and So]).” Then when he says du’a during the rituals he should pray for himself and for the person on whose behalf he is performing Hajj.
Types of Hajj
With regard to the types of Hajj, there are three: tamattu`, qiran and ifrad.
- Tamattu` is when the pilgrim enters ihram for `Umrah during the months of Hajj (which are Shawwal, Dhu’l-Qa’dah and the first ten days of Dhu’l-Hijjah) and performs `Umrah and exits ihram, then he enters ihram again for Hajj from Makkah or its environs on the day of al-Tarwiyah (the eighth day of Dhul-Hijjah) in the same year as his `Umrah.
- Qiran is when the pilgrim enters ihram for `Umrah and Hajj together, and does not exit ihram until the day of Sacrifice, or he enters ihram for `Umrah then includes Hajj with it before he starts his tawaf.
- Ifrad is when the pilgrim enters ihram for Hajj from the miqat or from Makkah if he resides there or in a place that is closer than the miqat, and remains in ihram until the Day of Sacrifice if he has a hadiy with him. If he does not have a hadiy with him, it is prescribed for him to cancel his Hajj and make it `Umrah, so he should perform tawaf and sa’i, then cut his hair and exit ihram, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) told those who entered ihram for Hajj but did not have a hadiy with them to do. This applies to the pilgrim doing qiran, if he does not have a hadiy with him; it is prescribed for him to cancel his qiran and make it `Umrah, for the reason mentioned.
Best types of Hajj
The best kind of Hajj is Tamattu` for the one who has not brought a hadiy with him, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) told his Companions to do that and insisted that they should do that.
We advise you to learn more about the rulings on Hajj and `Umrah by referring to Manasik al-Hajj wa’l-`Umrah by Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymin (may Allah have mercy on him), which you can obtain through the Shaykh’s website on the internet.
And Allah knows best.