Praise be to Allaah.
As far as we know, there no evidence that has been narrated for any specific du’aa’, so it is permissible for a person to pray for whatever he wants and to choose any good du’aa’, such as asking for forgiveness of sins or to be granted Paradise and be saved from Hell, or to seek refuge from tribulation, or to be granted help to understand the Qur’aan in the way that pleases Allaah and to act in accordance with it, and so on. It was reported that Anas (may Allaah be pleased with him) used to gather his family when he finished reading the Qur’aan, and would offer du’aa’. With regard to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), nothing to this effect was narrated from him as far as I know.
As for the du’aa’ attributed to Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him), I do not know whether this attribution is correct, but I have never come across anything of the sort in his books. And Allaah knows best.