Praise be to Allaah.
The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to come out of his house on the day of Jumuah (Friday) and climb up on his minbar. Then the muezzin would give the Adhaan, and when he finished, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) would start his khutbah. If there were any Sunnah prayer to be done before Jumuah, he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) would have told them about it and directed them to do it after the Adhaan, and he would have done it himself. At the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) there was nothing apart from the Adhaan just before the khutbah.
Hence the majority of the imaams agreed that there is no sunnah to be done at a specific time before Jumuah with a specific number of rakahs, because that would have been reported from the words or actions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and nothing of that nature has been reported from him. This is the madhhab of Maalik, al-Shaafai and most of his companions, and is the well known view in the madhhab of Ahmad.
I have not seen anything to indicate that the three imaams recommended praying Sunnah before it [Jumuah].
The muhaddith al-Albaani commented:
For that reason this so-called Sunnah is not mentioned in Kitaab al-Umm by Imaam al-Shaafai, or in al-Masaail by Imaam Ahmad, or by any of the other early imaams, as far as I know.
Hence I say:
Those who pray this Sunnah are not following the Messenger or imitating any of the imaams; on the contrary, they are imitating the later scholars who are like them in that they are also imitators [of earlier scholars] rather than mujtahideen [scholars who investigate and form their own rulings]. I am amazed to see an imitator imitating another imitator.
(See al-Qawl al-Mubeen, 60, 374).
Moreover, between the first call of Jumuah prayer and the second call, there should be sufficient time for people to get ready to pray, not just the time it takes to pray two rakahs or thereabouts, as is done in some countries and some mosques.
With regard to making duaa together in one voice behind the imaam after the prayer, Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen answered this question in al-Fataawaa, p. 368, where he said:
This is one of the bidahs which was not reported from the Prophet or from his companions. What is prescribed in Islam is for people to remember Allaah Alone after the prayer, in accordance with the teachings of the Messenger of Allaah, and this should be done aloud, as reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaari from Ibn Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with them both), who said: People used to raise their voices in Dhikr [remembrance of Allaah] after finishing the prescribed prayer at the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).
With regard to the prayer after Jumuah, Ibn al-Qayyim said in al-Zaad (1/440):
When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had prayed Jumuah, he would enter his house and pray two Rakahs of Sunnah, and he commanded those who had prayed it to pray four rakahs afterwards. Our shaykh, Abul-Abbaas Ibn Taymiyah said: if he prayed in the mosque, he would pray four, and if he prayed at home, he would pray two. I say: this is what is indicated by many ahaadeeth. Abu Dawood reported in his Sunan (1130) from Ibn Umar that when he prayed in the mosque, he prayed four and when he prayed at home, he prayed two.
With regard to wiping the face after making duaa, this is not reported in any saheeh hadeeth; indeed, some of the scholars stated that it is bidah.See Mujam al-Bida (p. 227).
Do not do that which is bidah and do not take part in it; advise and enjoin people to follow the Sunnah; remind them and tell them about the Islamic ruling. We ask Allaah to guide us all to the Straight Path; may Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad.