Is it Sunnah (from the Prophet’s teachings) to read Surah al-Dukaan on the night before Friday?
There are marfoo‘ hadeeths (reports attributed to the prophet) about the virtue of reading Surah al-Dukhan, but none of them are saheeh (authentic).
With regard to the first hadeeth:
It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:
“Whoever recites Ha-Meem (Surah) al-Dukaan on the night before Friday will be forgiven.”
It was narrated by al-Tirmidhi (2889) via Hisham Abu’l-Miqdam, from al-Hasan, from Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him).
Then al-Tirmidhi said: We only know this hadeeth through this isnad, and Hisham Abu’l-Miqdam is da‘eef. And al-Hasan did not hear from Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him). This was the view of Ayyoob, Yoonus ibn ‘Ubayd and ‘Ali ibn Zayd.
Thus the hadeeth has two faults:
1. Abu’l-Miqdam Hisham ibn Ziyad: the muhadditheen (scholars of hadeeth) are unanimously agreed that he is to be regarded as da‘eef. Ibn Hibban said: He narrates fabricated reports from trustworthy narrators, and it is not permissible to quote him as evidence. See: Tahdheeb al-Tahdheeb, 11/39.
2. There is a break in the isnad between al-Hasan and Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him).
Hence it was classed as da‘eef by Ibn al-Jawzi in al-Mawdoo‘at (1/247), Ibn al-‘Arabi in ‘Aridah al-Ahwadhi, 6/35, and al-Albani in Da‘eef al-Tirmidhi.
The second hadeeth:
In his Tafseer (exegesis) (4/46), al-Wahidi narrated a hadeeth from Ubayy ibn Ka‘b (may Allah be pleased with him) that is similar to the hadeeth quoted above, except that its isnad includes Sallam ibn Saleem who is accused of lying. Hence, al-Shaykh al-Albani, in al-Silsilah al-Da‘eefah (no. 4632), ruled that it is da‘eef jiddan (very weak).
Ahmad ibn Manee‘ also narrated it from Ubayy ibn Ka‘b (may Allah be pleased with him) in his Musnad, as it says in al-Busayri’s Ithaf al-Khiyarah al-Maharah (6/89). Then he said: This isnad is weak because Haroon ibn Katheer is not known.
The third hadeeth:
It was narrated from Abu Umamah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:
“Whoever recites Ha-Meem (Surah) al-Dukhan on the night before Friday or on Friday, Allah will build for him a house in Paradise.”
This was narrated by al-Tabarani in al-Mu‘jam al-Kabeer (8/264).
Al-Shaykh al-Albani (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
(It is) da‘eef jiddan (very weak). It was narrated by al-Asfahani in al-Targheeb wa’l-Tarheeb (p. 244) from Hafs ibn ‘Umar al-Mazini: Fidal ibn Jubayr told us, from Abu Umamah (may Allah be pleased with him) in a marfoo‘ (attributed directly to the Prophet) report…
I [al-Shaykh al-Albani (may Allah have mercy on him)] say: This isnad (chain of transmission) is da‘eef jiddan. With regard to Fidal ibn Jubayr, Ibn Hibban said: It is not permissible to quote him as evidence under any circumstances; he narrated hadeeths that have no basis. Because of him, al-Haythami regarded it as a faulty hadeeth and said (2/168): It was narrated by al-Tabarani in al-Kabeer and its isnad includes Fidal ibn Jubayr, who is da‘eef jiddan, and Hafs ibn ‘Umar al-Mazini, who is not known, as it says in al-Lisan. End quote.
Silsilah al-Ahadeeth al-Da‘eefah wa’l-Mawdoo‘ah, 11/191, no. 5112
This hadeeth is also classed as da‘eef in Fatawa al-Lajnah al-Daimah, 3/141
And Allah knows best.