Praise be to Allah.
Watching (raqeeb) and ready to record (‘ateed) are two characteristics of the angels who are appointed to record everything that the son of Adam does, good and evil. They are characteristics that apply to each of the two recording angels. The angel on the right is watching and ready to record, and the angel on the left is watching and ready to record.
Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And We have already created man and know what his soul whispers to him, and We are closer to him than [his] jugular vein.
When the two receivers receive, seated on the right and on the left.
Man does not utter any word except that with him is an observer prepared [to record]” [Qaaf 50:16-18].
Allah, may He be exalted, is the Just Judge, the Knower of subtleties, the All-Aware. By His perfect justice, He has ordained a variety of witnesses over mankind.
Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, is the greatest of witnesses, as He, may He be glorified, says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Indeed Allah is, over all things, Witness” [Al-Hajj 22:17].
Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, has made the angels witnesses.
Allah has made man a witness over his own self:
“Indeed, those who [falsely] accuse chaste, unaware and believing women are cursed in this world and the Hereafter; and they will have a great punishment.
On a Day when their tongues, their hands and their feet will bear witness against them as to what they used to do.
That Day, Allah will pay them in full their deserved recompense, and they will know that it is Allah who is the perfect in justice” [An-Noor 24:23-25].
“And [mention, O Muhammad], the Day when the enemies of Allah will be gathered to the Fire while they are [driven] assembled in rows,
Until, when they reach it, their hearing and their eyes and their skins will testify against them of what they used to do.
And they will say to their skins, ‘Why have you testified against us?’ They will say, ‘We were made to speak by Allah, who has made everything speak; and He created you the first time, and to Him you are returned.
And you were not covering yourselves, lest your hearing testify against you or your sight or your skins, but you assumed that Allah does not know much of what you do.
And that was your assumption which you assumed about your Lord. It has brought you to ruin, and you have become among the losers.’
So [even] if they are patient, the Fire is a residence for them; and if they ask to appease [ Allah ], they will not be of those who are allowed to appease” [Fussilat 41:19-24].
It was narrated that Anas ibn Maalik said: We were with the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) and he smiled. He said: “Do you know why I am smiling?” We said: Allah and His Messenger know best. He said: “Because of the conversation that a slave will have with his Lord. He will say: O Lord, did You not guarantee me protection from injustice? He will say: Yes. He will say: I do not deem valid any witness against me but my own self. He will say: Your own self will be sufficient as a witness against you this Day, and the witness of the two recording angels. Then a seal will be placed on his mouth and it will be said to his limbs: Speak. And they will speak of his deeds. Then he will be allowed to speak and he will say: Away with you and may the curse of Allah be upon you! It was on your behalf that I contended.”.
Al-Wazeer ibn Hubayrah (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
In this hadith we see how Allah, may He be glorified, demonstrates His justice to His slaves. Part of His justice is that if a case is presented before Him that is to be judged according to the testimony of just witnesses, if the accused denies guilt, how can guilt be proven before all people to prove the lie and fabrication of that denier? The answer is that Allah will cause his physical faculties to speak regarding what he denied, and confirming the sound testimony of the witnesses.
If this wretched person had been enabled, he would have spoken with his mouth and would be able to speak and admit his guilt to Allah, and thus he would avoid combining the committing of that which he should not have committed (in this world) and denying that before Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, which is indicative of his ignorance of the fact that Allah is able to bring to light everything that is hidden. Thus this wretched person combined sin, lying and ignorance of his Lord.
With regard to the words “Sufficient is yourself against you this Day as reckoner [Al-Isra’ 17:14] and [sufficient are] the noble scribes”, this means that Allah, may He be glorified, will cause a person’s faculties to speak and confirm the testimony of the witnesses, not because there is any doubt concerning their testimony or because it is lacking."(Al-Ifsaah ‘an Ma‘aani as-Sihaah 5/401).
Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, is a fair judge Who does not pass judgement over His slaves on the basis of what He knows of them in terms of disbelief or faith; rather He has all their deeds recorded and appoints His noble angels to be witnesses over them and to record all that they do, good or evil, in their record of deeds. He will give them their records on the Day of Resurrection to testify over them. He appoints the angels, the noble scribes, as witnesses over His slaves to testify to their deeds, so that none of His creation will have any reason to doubt their testimony, proof will be established against them, and no one will have any grounds to argue against the judgement of the Lord of the Worlds.
Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And those who argue concerning Allah after He has been responded to - their argument is invalid with their Lord, and upon them is [His] wrath, and for them is a severe punishment”
And Allah knows best.