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Do Women Pray Jumu`ah?

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Publication : 21-02-2006

Views : 259460

Question

Is Jumu`ah prayer obligatory for women too, or only for men? How should a woman pray? I am a woman and I do not have any place in the mosque. Can I pray Jumu`ah at home by myself? Will I attain the reward for Jumu`ah?

Summary of answer

Jumu`ah prayer is not obligatory for women and they may pray four Rak`ahs of Dhuhr in their homes. Praying Jumu`ah at home on one’s own is not valid for either a man or a woman. If a woman wants to pray Jumu`ah, she has to avoid perfume and adornments, and not crowd together with men in the streets.

Praise be to Allah.

Can women pray Jumu`ah?

The scholars agreed that Jumu`ah prayer is not obligatory for women , and that they may pray four Rak`ahs of Dhuhr in their homes. 

Ibn Al-Mundhir (may Allah have mercy on him) says in Al-Ijma` (no. 52): “They unanimously agreed that Jumu`ah is not obligatory for women.” 

The evidence for that is the Hadith of Tariq ibn Shihab (may Allah be pleased with him) according to which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Jumu`ah is a duty that is required of every Muslim in congregation, except four: a slave, a woman, a child or one who is sick.” (Narrated by Abu Dawud, 91067)

An-Nawawi said in Al-Majmu` (4/482): “Its Isnad (chain of narration) is authentic according to the conditions of the two Shaykhs (Al-Bukhari and Muslim).”

Ibn Rajab (may Allah have mercy on him) said in Fath Al-Bari (5/327): “Its Isnad is authentic.” Ibn Kathir (may Allah have mercy on him) said in Irshad Al-Faqih (1/190): “Its Isnad is good. It was also classed as authentic by Al-Albani in Sahih Al-Jami`, 3111.) 

The reason why Jumu`ah is not obligatory for women is that Shari`ah does not encourage women to attend places where men gather, because of the negative consequences to which that may lead, as happens nowadays in many workplaces where men and women mix. (See also Bada’i` Al-Sana’i`, 1/258) 

If a woman adheres to the Shar’i conditions for her going out to the mosque, such as not wearing adornments and perfume, then there is nothing wrong with her attending Jumu`ah prayers in the mosque and praying two Rak`ahs behind the Imam, in which case she does not need to pray Dhuhr. 

Ibn Al-Mundhir (may Allah have mercy on him) said in Al-Ijma` (no. 52, 53): 

“They unanimously agreed that if women join the Imam and pray with him, that is sufficient for them.”

Ibn Qudamah (may Allah have mercy on him) said in Al-Mughni (2/88): 

“But if she prays Jumu`ah it is valid, because for women to pray in congregation is valid, as the women used to pray with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in congregation.”

Can Jumu`ah be offered at home?

With regard to praying Jumu`ah in the home on one’s own , this is not valid for either a man or a woman, because Jumu`ah prayer is only valid when done in congregation, as stated in the Hadith of the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) quoted above:  “Jumu`ah is a duty that is required of every Muslim in congregation .” 

Can women pray Jumu`ah together at home?

If a group wanted to pray Jumu`ah in the house, this is also not valid, because Jumu`ah prayer is prescribed in order for the Muslims to gather together in one place for prayer and to listen to the Khutbah and benefit from it. Hence it is not permissible for there to be numerous Jumu`ah prayers in one city unless there is a need for that, such as if the city is very large or there is no Jami’ mosque that can hold all the people. 

Based on this, if you do not go to the mosque to pray Jumu`ah, then you should pray Dhuhr at home.  

It says in Fatawa Al-Lajnah Ad-Da’imah (7/337): 

“If a woman prays Jumu`ah with the Imam, that is sufficient and she does not have to pray Dhuhr; it is not permissible for her to pray Dhuhr that day. But if she prays on her own then she can only pray Dhuhr, and she cannot pray Jumu`ah.” 

It is better for a woman to pray Dhuhr in her house, because of the general meaning of the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him): “Do not prevent your women from going to the mosques, although their houses are better for them.” (Narrated by Abu Dawud, 567; Classed as authentic by Al-Albani in Sahih Abu Dawud) 

If she wants to go to Jumu`ah, then she has to avoid perfume and adornments, and not crowd together with men in the streets. 

And Allah knows best.

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Source: Islam Q&A