Praise be to Allah.
We thank you for your trust in our site, and we ask Allaah to help us meet your expectations, and to bless you with strength and guidance. We also appreciate your eagerness to learn that which you do not know. This is something that is obligatory upon every Muslim, for man is not born with knowledge. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “Knowledge comes by learning.” (Classed as hasan by Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Baari). Do not think that asking about things you do not know is stupid, rather it is something that is necessary and a person is to be commended for doing so.
With regard to the questions that have to do with prayer, you will find under question no. 13340 a detailed answer describing the prayer and what is to be said in it.
With regard to reciting Qur’aan in Arabic or another language, you will find under question no. 3471 a detailed answer concerning this matter. We advise you to try hard to learn Arabic, at least Soorat al-Faatihah and the pillars and essential parts of prayer. That should be easy, either by learning it from a Muslim who knows it by heart and can read it well, or by going to a website on the Internet that has audio recordings of the Holy Qur’aan and listening to it and memorizing it from that.
With regard to missing prayers, one of the following two scenarios must apply:
1 – When you miss a prayer unintentionally, for a legitimate shar’i excuse, such as forgetting or sleeping, although you are basically very keen to perform the prayer on time. In this case you are excused but you have to make it up as soon as you remember it. The evidence for that is the hadeeth narrated in Saheeh Muslim (681) which tells how the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and his companions slept and missed Fajr prayer, and the Sahaabah began to ask one another, “What is the expiation (kafaarah) for what we have done by neglecting the prayer?” The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said. “Sleeping does not mean that you are neglecting the prayer. Rather neglecting the prayer means not praying one prayer until the time for the next prayer comes. Whoever does that let him pray when he remembers it.”
This does not mean that a person should sleep deliberately when a prayer is due, until he misses it, then use sleep as an excuse, or neglect a means that would help him to do the prayer, and then take that as an excuse. Rather he must make use of all the means he can, as the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did in this case, when he appointed one person to stay awake and wake them up to pray, but that person was overcome by drowsiness, so he did not wake them up. This is the case in which a person may be excused.
2 – When you miss a prayer deliberately. This is a major sin, and it is so serious that some of the scholars stated that the one who does this is a kaafir. (as it says in Majmoo’ Fataawa wa Maqaalaat Samaahat al-Shaykh Ibn Baaz, 10/374). The one who does this has to repent sincerely, according to scholarly consensus. With regard to making up the prayer, there was a difference of opinion among the scholars as to whether or not it would be accepted from him if he makes it up afterwards. Most of the scholars said that he should make it up and that his prayer is valid, although he is a sinner (i.e., if he does not repent – and Allaah knows best), as Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthyameen quoted from them in al-Sharh al-Mumti’, 2/89. The view favoured by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) is that it is not valid, and that it is not prescribed for him to make it up. He said in al-Ikhtiyaaraat (34): “It is not prescribed for the one who misses a prayer deliberately to make it up, and the prayer, if he makes it up, is not valid; rather he should do a lot of voluntary (naafil) prayers. This is the view of a group among the Salaf.” One of the contemporary scholars who regarded this view as more correct is Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him); he quoted as evidence for that the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), “Whoever does an action that is not in accordance with this matter of ours (i.e., Islam), will have it rejected.” (Agreed upon).
So you must beware of this and strive to perform all the prayers on time, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Verily, As‑Salaah (the prayer) is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours”
With regard to repentance, you will find a detailed answer under question no. 14289 on this website.
With regard to meat that has been slaughtered by a non-Muslim, you will find an answer under question no. 10339.
With regard to your question about seafood, it is all halaal in principle, because Allaah say (interpretation of the meaning):
“Lawful to you is (the pursuit of) water game and its use for food — for the benefit of yourselves”
We ask Allaah to help you to learn Arabic and to understand Islam, and to do more righteous deeds, for He is Able to do that.